Dunning-Kruger Effect

excerpt from the Wikipedia article on this topic:
“Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their competence or incompetence.”
The popular version is: “Stupid people don’t realize they’re stupid.”
Here’s the link to the full article.
“If a system contains a model of itself, and can query the self-model, the system can evaluate correctness through self-observation.”
also cf:
“A system which contains a model of itself can function in an anticipatory mode.”
keywords: psychology, delusion, illusion, superiority, inferiority