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Any movement in the spiritual realm is an argument (a dispute being a special case of argument). Movement in the physical realm can also be an argument. For example, war is proverbially the argument of kings. Movement in the spiritual realm is called mathematics. (This is why Euclid’s attempt to teach the king mathematics was doomed.) The degree of civilization is equal to the degree to which argumentation occurs in the spiritual realm. The key to ratcheting up the degree of civilization is to heed the advice of Peter Stuyvesant: “There is nothing of greater importance than the early instruction of youth.”
article of faith: Every argument in the physical realm has a corresponding argument in the spiritual realm that is at least as strong (and usually stronger).
keywords: life, General Systems Theory, progress, culture

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A (summative) assessment is any object whose boundary is large compared with its interior.
keywords: education, instruction, training, teaching, learning, study, General Topology, topological boundary, topological interior